Since the advent of the era of Enlightenment a few centuries ago religion, myth and spirituality have become ever less important in society. For ancient cultures mythology often provided the only answers to questions about human nature and the nature of the universe. Hence it shouldn’t be surprising, that gods and goddesses were of major significance to the early Europeans.

Myths and rituals didn’t only supply answers to philosophical questions, however. Some legends may have served as examples or guides for leading an ethically and morally sound life. Others may have been a source of entertainment. Many probably fulfilled both purposes. Rituals, on the other hand, were most likely not only a means to ask favours from supernatural beings to improve the situation of an individual or a group of people. They were also essential for the social cohesion of a group, be it a family, clan, tribe, or even an empire, as the cult revolving around the Roman Emperors aptly demonstrates. Many of these rituals have survived the transformation of the continent from Paganism to Christianity in popular holidays such as Christmas or Easter, which still bears the name of an Old English Goddess, Eostre. This particular goddess and possibly even the holiday associated with here have their roots in the Proto-Indo-European pantheon as a deity of dawn.

On this page, you will find articles concerning the myths, legends, rituals and spiritual believes of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and some of their descendants. More articles may be added in the future.

Mythological Inspirations to Tolkien’s Middle Earth

J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth has fascinated generations of readers. This article seeks to examine some of the influences on his works, such as the Icelandic Sagas and Old English Poetry, such as Beowulf.… Read More Mythological Inspirations to Tolkien’s Middle Earth

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The Proto-Indo-European Myth Of Creation

All cultures have their own, unique story of creation, some of which we may be more familiar with than others. The ancient Greeks believed that in the beginning there was Chaos, the Norse that there was Ginnungagap, ‘the big gap’ of nothingness between the forces of fire and ice. But what if these myths, together with a few others across the Eurasian continent, had a common, Proto-Indo-European origin?… Read More The Proto-Indo-European Myth Of Creation

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